vor 1 Tag Die Seco hat im letzten Jahr die Ausfuhr von mehr als Uhren nach Nordkorea bewilligt. Warum das problematisch sein kann. Nordkorea ist ein von der Außenwelt stark abgeschottetes Land, das in Asien liegt und im Norden an China und Russland und im Süden an Südkorea grenzt. USA und Nordkorea: Donald Trump und Kim Jong Un planen Gipfeltreffen im Februar. SPIEGEL ONLINE - Nach dem Treffen von US-Präsident. Retrieved 26 April This entry includes a brief general assessment of the system with details on the domestic and international components. Natural gas - exports: The description subfield provides the legislative structure unicameral — single house; norfkorea — an upper and casino bonus ohne einzahlung lower house ; formal name s ; number of member seats; types of constituencies or voting districts single seat, multi-seat, nationwide ; electoral voting system s ; and member term of office. Visual em irland schweden tipp are generally produced in the aesthetics of Socialist realism. Laut nordkoreanischer Geschichtsschreibung wurde am 6. Foreign trade surpassed pre-crisis levels in and continues to expand. Much of the equipment is engineered and produced by a domestic largest online casino companies industry. Archived from the original on 10 February Retrieved 11 October
Het was de eerste maal sinds de top van de Amerikaanse president Donald Trump en zijn Noord-Koreaanse ambtgenoot Kim Jong-un, waar werd afgesproken dat deze oefeningen werden opgeschort.
De Noord-Koreaanse leider Kim Jong-un en de president van Zuid-Korea, Moon Jae-in, hebben tijdens de driedaagse top in Pyongyang afgesproken zich in te zetten voor een kernwapenvrij en vreedzaam schiereiland.
Leiders Kim en Moon willen kernwapenvrij en vreedzaam schiereiland update: De Zuid-Koreaanse president Moon Jae is dinsdag aangekomen in de Noord-Koreaanse hoofdstad Pyongyang voor een driedaagse top tussen de twee landen.
De rol van Moon zal die van bemiddelaar zijn om de ontstane impasse tussen Noord-Korea en de Verenigde Staten te doorbreken.
Dat moet de samenwerking tussen de buurlanden bevorderen, bericht het Zuid-Koreaanse persbureau Yonhap. Daarnaast zijn ongeveer evenveel mensen gewond geraakt en zijn de huizen van duizenden mensen verwoest, meldt het Rode Kruis.
De oefeningen werden medio juni opgeschort als "gebaar van goede wil" naar Noord-Korea. De man was aangehouden op verdenking van strafbare feiten.
Het staatspersbureau van Noord-Korea bericht dat de Japanner coulant wordt behandeld en mag vertrekken. Een Maleisische rechtbank oordeelde donderdag dat er voldoende grond is om de zaak voort te zetten.
Minitelefoon van 14 euro lijkt op Nokia Gadgets Meest gelezen 1. Moeder in Londen schuldig bevonden aan genitaal verminken dochter 3.
Zo komt Temptation Island aan zijn deelnemers 4. Retrieved 3 July Retrieved on 6 April Archived from the original on 21 March Retrieved 20 February Archived from the original on 29 April Retrieved 13 December The National Committee on North Korea.
Archived PDF from the original on 4 March Retrieved 17 April California , United States. Archived from the original on 13 March Retrieved 27 October Archived from the original on Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation.
Archived from the original on 6 January Retrieved 5 January Chapter 3 — State Sponsors of Terrorism Overview".
Archived from the original on 20 February Retrieved 26 June Archived from the original on 24 May Archived from the original on 12 October Retrieved 11 October Retrieved 20 November Archived from the original on 15 January Archived from the original on 30 November Retrieved 18 February Archived from the original on 29 August Archived from the original on 13 November Archived from the original on 23 December Retrieved 4 October Archived from the original on 6 March Retrieved 8 March Archived from the original on 24 August Archived from the original on 9 March Archived from the original on 27 December Archived from the original on 25 September Retrieved 5 April Retrieved May 4, Retrieved 19 September Torture, starvation rife in North Korea political prisons".
Archived from the original on 28 December Archived from the original on 29 March Archived from the original on 29 September Retrieved 20 April Retrieved 10 April Freedom House, May Archived PDF from the original on 30 October Archived from the original PDF on 26 April Archived from the original on 13 April Archived from the original on 7 April Concentration Camps in the Spotlight".
Archived from the original on 4 May Archived PDF from the original on 13 March Retrieved 14 September Archived from the original on 18 February Archived from the original on 17 February The Chosunilbo, April 4, Archived from the original on 5 April Retrieved November 1, Archived from the original on 29 July As for Kirby who took the lead in cooking the "report", he is a disgusting old lecher with a odd-year-long career of homosexuality.
He is now over seventy, but he is still anxious to get married to his homosexual partner. This practice can never be found in the DPRK boasting of the sound mentality and good morals, and homosexuality has become a target of public criticism even in Western countries, too.
Archived from the original on 19 September Retrieved 19 May A case to answer — a call to act p. Christian Solidarity Worldwide, June 20, Archived from the original PDF on 7 June Retrieved 3 June The Military Balance Retrieved 25 April Everything you need to know".
Retrieved 9 August The Chosun Ilbo English Edition. Archived from the original on 24 December Retrieved 2 October Archived from the original on 3 September Archived from the original on 30 August Archived from the original on 16 September Retrieved 8 September Korea Boosting Cyber Warfare Capabilities".
Archived from the original on 10 December Retrieved 12 December Federation of American Scientists. Korean Central News Agency.
Archived PDF from the original on 28 June Retrieved 22 July Archived from the original on 29 May Archived from the original on 10 July Archived from the original on 14 May Archived from the original on 4 August Life Expectancy at Birth".
Journal of Preventative Medicine and Public Health. Archived from the original on 11 July Retrieved 18 November Archived PDF from the original on 8 April Library of Congress Country Studies.
Retrieved 25 July Archived from the original on 13 October Retrieved 2 August Freedom of Movement, Opinion and Expression". Retrieved 4 March Countries and Their Cultures.
Archived from the original on 1 July Focus on the Top Ten". Archived from the original on 22 June Archived from the original on 11 March Archived from the original on 7 March Committee for Human Rights in North Korea.
Archived PDF from the original on 21 September Retrieved 8 June Archived from the original on 18 March Foreword by Stephen J. People with the best songbun are descendants of the anti-Japanese guerrillas who fought with Kim Il-song, followed by people whose parents or grandparents were factory workers, laborers, or poor, small farmers in Archived from the original on 28 January Retrieved 28 February Archived from the original on 22 May Archived from the original PDF on 5 October The Institute for Far Eastern Studies.
Retrieved 15 June Archived from the original on 9 October Retrieved 19 June Archived from the original on 7 July Retrieved 7 June Korean market, furor for S.
Archived from the original on 9 June Peterson Institute for International Economics. Archived from the original on 12 April Archived from the original on 12 August Retrieved 16 August Archived from the original on 3 June Korea switching to trade in rubles".
Archived from the original on 10 June The Institute of Far Eastern Studies. Archived from the original on 15 June Retrieved 16 June Archived from the original on 4 June Archived from the original on 25 July Korea moves to develop cutting-edge nanotech industry Archived 7 April at the Wayback Machine Yonhap News — 2 August access date: Archived from the original on 29 October Archived from the original on 9 July Messages from North Korea".
Archived from the original on 4 July Archived from the original on 7 February Retrieved 7 February UN security council condemns latest violation".
Telephones — main lines in use". Archived from the original on 8 July Retrieved 11 May Archived from the original on 18 July Archived from the original on 21 September Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.
Archived from the original on 10 April Archived from the original on 13 December Retrieved 6 June Retrieved 6 July Retrieved 14 July Archived from the original on 24 February Archived from the original on 24 July Bringing modern music to Pyongyang".
Archived from the original on 26 August How North Korea discovered Michael Jackson". From Pyongyang to Mars: Archived from the original on 13 June Archived from the original on 20 July Archived from the original PDF on 14 January Retrieved 19 January The primary focus of the study was on the ability of North Koreans to access outside information from foreign sources through a variety of media, communication technologies and personal sources.
Archived from the original on 26 April Retrieved 28 April Archived from the original on 20 August Archived from the original on 7 October Archived from the original on 16 April Retrieved 26 March Archived from the original on 8 October Archived from the original on 19 January Retrieved 15 July Korean Culture and Information Service.
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Hayes, Peter, and Roger Cavazos. Economy, Executions, and Nuclear Brinksmanship. Under the Loving Care of the Fatherly Leader: North Korea and the Kim Dynasty.
Myers, Brian Reynolds Yonhap News Agency, ed. South Korea North Korea. Administrative divisions Cities Environment. Links to related articles.
Countries and dependencies of Asia. Dependencies and special administrative regions. Christmas Island Cocos Keeling Islands.
Book Category Asia portal. Brazil United Kingdom United States. States with limited recognition. Details concerning international recognition and foreign relations provided by the articles linked in parenthesis.
Abkhazia recognition relations Kosovo recognition relations Northern Cyprus relations Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic recognition relations South Ossetia recognition relations Taiwan relations.
Artsakh recognition relations Transnistria recognition relations. Retrieved from " https: Archived copy as title Webarchive template wayback links CS1 uses Chinese-language script zh CS1 Chinese-language sources zh Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from February CS1 maint: Views Read View source View history.
This page was last edited on 1 February , at Selbst schwangere Frauen werden in diesen Lagern zu langer und harter Arbeit gezwungen.
Inhaftierte starben infolge von Folter, Hunger, durch Nahrungsmittelentzug oder wurden aufgrund von geringen Vergehen hingerichtet.
Westlichen Hilfsorganisationen zufolge sind rund Die nordkoreanische Regierung ist bestrebt, freie Berichterstattung in Nordkorea zu unterbinden.
Nordkorea ist im Wesentlichen vom globalen Internet abgeschottet. Unter diesen sind sie auch aus dem Westen erreichbar, sofern der Absender zuvor bei offiziellen nordkoreanischen Stellen registriert wurde.
In den ersten drei Monaten des Jahres kamen etwa 50 Besucher in den Lesesaal; im November wurde er seitens des Goethe-Institutes geschlossen. Spiele, die von Mannschaften feindlich angesehener Staaten gewonnen wurden, wurden nicht ausgestrahlt.
Das zweite Spiel gegen Portugal wurde live ausgestrahlt. Angeblich sollen infolgedessen sogar die Wohnungspreise in direkter Nachbarschaft der Botschaften gestiegen sein.
Gleichzeitig nahm Nordkorea in dieser Zeit zum ersten Mal Beziehungen zu marktwirtschaftlichen Staaten der westlichen Welt auf. Wegen seines Atomprogramms und der schweren Menschenrechtsverletzungen, die Nordkorea vorgeworfen werden, ist das Land derzeit allerdings weitestgehend isoliert.
Es gibt Berichte, dass der Iran und Nordkorea bei ihren jeweiligen Atomprogrammen kooperiert haben.
Ergebnisse des Treffens waren u. Der Vertrag mit der Volksrepublik China ist noch in Kraft, die gegenseitigen Verpflichtungen wurden jedoch verringert.
September wurde Nordkorea Mitglied der Vereinten Nationen. Anfang September wurde in Teheran ein wissenschaftliches und technologisches Kooperationsabkommen mit dem ebenfalls politisch isolierten Iran unterzeichnet.
Laut nordkoreanischer Geschichtsschreibung wurde am 6. Abgesehen von einem Angriff auf eine Polizeistation in Pochonbo am 4. September wurde bereits am 8.
Die KVA umfasste zu dieser Zeit etwa Ausbilder und Waffen kamen aus der Sowjetunion. Nach eigenen Angaben hat Nordkorea am 9. Letzteres geschah jedoch wie erwartet am 7.
Januars meldete Nordkorea den erfolgreichen Test einer Wasserstoffbombe. Kurz darauf, am 8. Februar , gelang Nordkorea der Start einer Langstreckenrakete, mit der ein Satellit in den Orbit gebracht wurde.
Im Juli wurde mit der Hwasong mit Meilen Reichweite die erste echte Interkontinentalrakete Nordkoreas erprobt.
November wurde von Nordkorea eine Rakete vom Typ Hwasong gestartet. Der amerikanische Raketenexperte Lance Gatling sagte dazu: Des Weiteren werde es keinen Transfer von Atomwaffen oder entsprechender Technologie geben.
April eingestellt, da die Realisierung des Atomwaffenprogramms erfolgreich abgeschlossen sei. Nordkorea gliedert sich in neun Provinzen sowie drei besondere Verwaltungsregionen.
Im August zum Alle Hauptindustrien sowie die Landwirtschaft befinden sich in staatlicher Hand. Ab unternahm die Regierung aufgrund der angespannten Versorgungssituation Versuche, die Wirtschaft in marktwirtschaftliche Richtung zu reformieren.
Jede Reisegruppe und auch Alleinreisende werden permanent von zwei Reiseleitern begleitet, die in der Regel die Muttersprache der jeweiligen Touristen sprechen.
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This entry usually highlights major historic events and current issues and may include a statement about one or two key future trends. This entry includes rounded latitude and longitude figures for the centroid or center point of a country expressed in degrees and minutes; it is based on the locations provided in the Geographic Names Server GNS , maintained by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency on behalf of the US Board on Geographic Names.
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The entry on Geographic coordinates may be helpful in finding some smaller countries. This entry includes three subfields. This entry provides an area comparison based on total area equivalents.
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This entry contains the total length of all land boundaries and the individual lengths for each of the contiguous border countries. When available, official lengths published by national statistical agencies are used.
Because surveying methods may differ, country border lengths reported by contiguous countries may differ.
China km, South Korea km, Russia 18 km. This entry gives the total length of the boundary between the land area including islands and the sea. This entry includes the following claims, the definitions of which are excerpted from the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea UNCLOS , which alone contains the full and definitive descriptions: This entry includes a brief description of typical weather regimes throughout the year.
This entry contains a brief description of the topography. This entry includes both the mean elevation and the elevation extremes.
In general, products appear only if they make a significant contribution to the economy, or are likely to do so in the future.
This entry contains the percentage shares of total land area for three different types of land use: This entry gives the number of square kilometers of land area that is artificially supplied with water.
This entry provides a summary description of the population dispersion within a country. While it may suggest population density, it does not provide density figures.
This entry lists potential natural disasters. For countries where volcanic activity is common, a volcanism subfield highlights historically active volcanoes.
Environment - current issues: This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry: Acidification - the lowering of soil and water pH due to acid precipitation and deposition usually through precipitation; this process disrupts ecosystem nutrient flows and may kill freshwater fish and plants dependent on more neutral or alkaline conditions see acid rain.
Acid rain - characterized as containing harmful levels of sulfur dioxi. Environment - international agreements: This entry separates country participation in international environmental agreements into two levels - party to and signed, but not ratified.
Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name. Law of the Sea. This entry includes miscellaneous geographic information of significance not included elsewhere.
This entry gives an estimate from the US Bureau of the Census based on statistics from population censuses, vital statistics registration systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past and on assumptions about future trends.
The total population presents one overall measure of the potential impact of the country on the world and within its region.
Starting with the Factbook, demographic estimates for some countries mostly African have explicitly taken into account t.
This entry provides the identifying terms for citizens - noun and adjective. This entry provides an ordered listing of ethnic groups starting with the largest and normally includes the percent of total population.
This entry provides a listing of languages spoken in each country and specifies any that are official national or regional languages. When data is available, the languages spoken in each country are broken down according to the percent of the total population speaking each language as a first language.
For those countries without available data, languages are listed in rank order based on prevalence, starting with the most-spoken language.
This entry is an ordered listing of religions by adherents starting with the largest group and sometimes includes the percent of total population.
Its guiding focus is to encourage the unity of all peoples on the earth so that justice and peace m. This entry provides the distribution of the population according to age.
Information is included by sex and age group as follows: Countries with young populations high percentage under age 15 need to invest more in schools, while countries with older population.
This is the population pyramid for Korea, North. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right.
The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top.
The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends.
For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page under the References tab.
Dependency ratios are a measure of the age structure of a population. They relate the number of individuals that are likely to be economically "dependent" on the support of others.
Changes in the dependency ratio provide an indication of potential social support requirements resulting from changes in population age structures.
This entry is the age that divides a population into two numerically equal groups; that is, half the people are younger than this age and half are older.
It is a single index that summarizes the age distribution of a population. Currently, the median age ranges from a low of about 15 in Niger and Uganda to 40 or more in several European countries and Japan.
See the entry for "Age structure" for the importance of a young versus an older age structure and, by implication, a low versus a high.
The average annual percent change in the population, resulting from a surplus or deficit of births over deaths and the balance of migrants entering and leaving a country.
The rate may be positive or negative. The growth rate is a factor in determining how great a burden would be imposed on a country by the changing needs of its people for infrastructure e.
Rapid population growth can be seen as. This entry gives the average annual number of births during a year per 1, persons in the population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate.
The birth rate is usually the dominant factor in determining the rate of population growth. It depends on both the level of fertility and the age structure of the population.
This entry gives the average annual number of deaths during a year per 1, population at midyear; also known as crude death rate.
The death rate, while only a rough indicator of the mortality situation in a country, accurately indicates the current mortality impact on population growth.
This indicator is significantly affected by age distribution, and most countries will eventually show a rise in the overall death rate, in spite of continued decline in mortality at all ages, as declining.
This entry includes the figure for the difference between the number of persons entering and leaving a country during the year per 1, persons based on midyear population.
An excess of persons entering the country is referred to as net immigration e. The net migration rate indicates the contribution of migration to the overall level of population chan.
This entry provides two measures of the degree of urbanization of a population. The first, urban population, describes the percentage of the total population living in urban areas, as defined by the country.
The second, rate of urbanization, describes the projected average rate of change of the size of the urban population over the given period of time. Additionally, the World entry includes a list of the ten largest urban agglomerations.
An urban agglomeration is defined as comprising th. Major urban areas - population: This entry provides the population of the capital and up to six major cities defined as urban agglomerations with populations of at least , people.
An urban agglomeration is defined as comprising the city or town proper and also the suburban fringe or thickly settled territory lying outside of, but adjacent to, the boundaries of the city.
For smaller countries, lacking urban centers of , or more, only the population of the capital is presented. This entry includes the number of males for each female in five age groups - at birth, under 15 years, years, 65 years and over, and for the total population.
Sex ratio at birth has recently emerged as an indicator of certain kinds of sex discrimination in some countries. For instance, high sex ratios at birth in some Asian countries are now attributed to sex-selective abortion and infanticide due to a strong preference for sons.
This will affect future marriage patterns and fertilit. The maternal mortality rate MMR is the annual number of female deaths per , live births from any cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy or its management excluding accidental or incidental causes.
The MMR includes deaths during pregnancy, childbirth, or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, for a specified year.
This entry gives the number of deaths of infants under one year old in a given year per 1, live births in the same year. This rate is often used as an indicator of the level of health in a country.
Life expectancy at birth: This entry contains the average number of years to be lived by a group of people born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future.
Life expectancy at birth is also a measure of overall quality of life in a country and summarizes the mortality at all ages.
It can also be thought of as indicating the potential return on investment in human capital and is necessary for the calculation of various actuarial measures.
This entry gives a figure for the average number of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each age.
The total fertility rate TFR is a more direct measure of the level of fertility than the crude birth rate, since it refers to births per woman.
This indicator shows the potential for population change in the country. A rate of two children per woman is considered the replaceme. This field gives the percent of women of reproductive age who are married or in union and are using, or whose sexual partner is using, a method of contraception according to the date of the most recent available data.
It is also useful in understanding, past, present, and future fertility trends, especially in developing countries.
This entry gives the number of medical doctors physicians , including generalist and specialist medical practitioners, per 1, of the population.
Medical doctors are defined as doctors that study, diagnose, treat, and prevent illness, disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in humans through the application of modern medicine.
They also plan, supervise, and evaluate care and treatment plans by other health care providers. The World Health Organization estimates that f.
This entry provides the number of hospital beds per 1, people; it serves as a general measure of inpatient service availability.
Hospital beds include inpatient beds available in public, private, general, and specialized hospitals and rehabilitation centers.
In most cases, beds for both acute and chronic care are included. Because the level of inpatient services required for individual countries depends on several factors - such as demographic issues and the burden of disease - there is.
This entry provides information about access to improved or unimproved drinking water sources available to segments of the population of a country.
Improved drinking water - use of any of the following sources: Unimproved drinking water - use of any of the following sources: This entry provides information about access to improved or unimproved sanitation facilities available to segments of the population of a country.
Improved sanitation - use of any of the following facilities: Unimproved sanitation - use of any of the following facilities: This entry gives an estimate of all people adults and children alive at yearend with HIV infection, whether or not they have developed symptoms of AIDS.
This entry gives an estimate of the number of adults and children who died of AIDS during a given calendar year. Obesity - adult prevalence rate: Children under the age of 5 years underweight: This entry gives the percent of children under five considered to be underweight.
Underweight means weight-for-age is approximately 2 kg below for standard at age one, 3 kg below standard for ages two and three, and 4 kg below standard for ages four and five.
This statistic is an indicator of the nutritional status of a community. This entry provides the public expenditure on education as a percent of GDP.
This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census Bureau percentages for the total population, males, and females. There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy.
Unless otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common definition - the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of the Factbook.
Information on literacy, while not a perfect measu. School life expectancy primary to tertiary education: School life expectancy SLE is the total number of years of schooling primary to tertiary that a child can expect to receive, assuming that the probability of his or her being enrolled in school at any particular future age is equal to the current enrollment ratio at that age.
Caution must be maintained when utilizing this indicator in international comparisons. For example, a year or grade completed in one country is not necessarily the same in terms of educational content or qualit.
Also see the Terminology note. This entry gives the basic form of government. Definitions of the major governmental terms are as follows.
Note that for some countries more than one definition applies. Absolute monarchy - a form of government where the monarch rules unhindered, i.
Anarchy - a condition of lawlessness or political disorder brought about by the absence of governmental authority.
Authoritarian - a form of government in whic. This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time UTC and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time DST.
Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones. This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names BGN.
Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by the BGN are noted. Geographic names conform to spellings approved by the BGN with the exception of the omission of diacritical marks and special characters.
For most countries, this entry gives the date that sovereignty was achieved and from which nation, empire, or trusteeship.
For the other countries, the date given may not represent "independence" in the strict sense, but rather some significant nationhood event such as the traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation, confederation, establishment, fundamental change in the form of government, or state succession.
For a number of countries, the establishment of statehood. This entry gives the primary national day of celebration - usually independence day.
The history subfield includes the dates of previous constitutions and the main steps and dates in formulating and implementing the latest constitution.
A statement on judicial review of legislative acts is also included for a number of countries. The legal systems of nearly all countries are generally modeled upon elements of five main types: International law organization participation: This entry provides information related to the acquisition and exercise of citizenship; it includes four subfields: This entry gives the age at enfranchisement and whether the right to vote is universal or restricted.
This entry includes five subentries: Chief of state includes the name, title, and beginning date in office of the titular leader of the country who represents the state at official and ceremonial functions but may not be involved with the day-to-day activities of the government.
Head of government includes the name, title of the top executive designated to manage the executive branch of the government, a. KIM Jong Un reelected unopposed.
This entry has three subfields. The description subfield provides the legislative structure unicameral — single house; bicameral — an upper and a lower house ; formal name s ; number of member seats; types of constituencies or voting districts single seat, multi-seat, nationwide ; electoral voting system s ; and member term of office.
The elections subfield includes the dates of the last election and next election. A number of countries have separate constitutional courts.
The judge selection and term of office subfield includes the organizations and associated officials responsible for nominating and appointing j.
Political parties and leaders: This entry lists in alphabetical order by abbreviation those international organizations in which the subject country is a member or participates in some other way.
Diplomatic representation in the US: The two successfully lobbied Joseph Stalin to support a quick war against the South, which culminated in the outbreak of the Korean War.
The military of North Korea invaded the South on 25 June , and swiftly overran most of the country. As they neared the border with China, Chinese forces intervened on behalf of North Korea, shifting the balance of the war again.
Fighting ended on 27 July , with an armistice that approximately restored the original boundaries between North and South Korea.
More than one million civilians and soldiers were killed in the war. As a result of the war, almost every substantial building in North Korea was destroyed.
Some have referred to the conflict as a civil war, with other factors involved. A heavily guarded demilitarized zone DMZ still divides the peninsula, and an anti-communist and anti-North Korea sentiment remains in South Korea.
Since the war, the United States has maintained a strong military presence in the South which is depicted by the North Korean government as an imperialist occupation force.
The relative peace between the South and the North following the armistice was interrupted by border skirmishes, celebrity abductions, and assassination attempts.
The North failed in several assassination attempts on South Korean leaders, such as in , and the Rangoon bombing in ; tunnels were found under the DMZ and tensions flared over the axe murder incident at Panmunjom in In , secret, high-level contacts began to be conducted culminating in the July 4th North-South Joint Statement that established principles of working toward peaceful reunification.
The talks ultimately failed because in , South Korea declared its preference that the two Koreas should seek separate memberships in international organizations.
Some scholars believe that the August incident demonstrated independence. Recovery from the war was quick—by industrial production reached levels.
In , relations with Japan had improved somewhat, and North Korea began allowing the repatriation of Japanese citizens in the country.
The same year, North Korea revalued the North Korean won , which held greater value than its South Korean counterpart. Until the s, economic growth was higher than in South Korea, and North Korean GDP per capita was equal to that of its southern neighbor as late as By the s the economy had begun to stagnate; it started its long decline in and almost completely collapsed after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in , when all Soviet aid was suddenly halted.
The North began reestablishing trade relations with China shortly thereafter, but the Chinese could not afford to provide enough food aid to meet demand.
Kim Il-sung died of a heart attack in , in the midst of a standoff with the United States over North Korean nuclear weapon development.
North Korea promised to halt its development of nuclear weapons under the Agreed Framework , negotiated with U.
Kim Jong-il instituted a policy called Songun , or "military first". There is much speculation about this policy being used as a strategy to strengthen the military while discouraging coup attempts.
Flooding in the mids exacerbated the economic crisis, severely damaging crops and infrastructure and led to widespread famine which the government proved incapable of curtailing.
In , the government accepted UN food aid. Since the outbreak of the famine, the government has reluctantly tolerated illegal black markets while officially maintaining a state socialist economy.
Corruption flourished and disillusionment with the government spread. The international environment changed with the election of U.
President Barack Obama adopted a policy of "strategic patience", resisting making deals with North Korea for the sake of defusing tension.
His youngest son Kim Jong-un was announced as his successor. Early European visitors to Korea remarked that the country resembled "a sea in a heavy gale" because of the many successive mountain ranges that crisscross the peninsula.
Mount Kumgang in the Taebaek Range , which extends into South Korea, is famous for its scenic beauty. The coastal plains are wide in the west and discontinuous in the east.
A great majority of the population lives in the plains and lowlands. According to a United Nations Environmental Programme report in , forest covers over 70 percent of the country, mostly on steep slopes.
Winters bring clear weather interspersed with snow storms as a result of northern and northwestern winds that blow from Siberia.
Approximately 60 percent of all precipitation occurs from June to September. North Korea functions as a highly centralized, one-party state.
According to its constitution , it is a self-described revolutionary and socialist state "guided in its activities by the Juche idea and the Songun idea".
According to the Constitution of North Korea there are officially three main branches of government. The first of these is the State Affairs Commission of North Korea , which acts as "the supreme national guidance organ of state sovereignty".
Its members are elected every five years by universal suffrage. Deputies formally elect the President, the vice-presidents and members of the Presidium and take part in the constitutionally appointed activities of the legislature: It is unknown whether it has ever criticized or amended bills placed before it, and the elections are based around a single list of WPK-approved candidates who stand without opposition.
His authority extends over two vice-premiers, 30 ministers , two cabinet commission chairmen, the cabinet chief secretary, the president of the Central Bank , the director of the Central Bureau of Statistics and the president of the Academy of Sciences.
The Juche ideology is the cornerstone of party works and government operations. Juche was initially promoted as a "creative application" of Marxism—Leninism , but in the mids, it was described by state propaganda as "the only scientific thought Juche eventually replaced Marxism—Leninism entirely by the s,  and in references to the latter were omitted from the constitution.
Kim developed a cult of personality closely tied to the state philosophy of Juche , which was later passed on to his successors: Claims that the dynasty has been deified are contested by North Korea researcher B.
The song " No Motherland Without You ", sung by the North Korean army choir, was created especially for Kim Jong-il and is one of the most popular tunes in the country.
Defectors have been quoted as saying that North Korean schools deify both father and son. Kim Jong-il was often the center of attention throughout ordinary life.
His birthday is one of the most important public holidays in the country. On his 60th birthday based on his official date of birth , mass celebrations occurred throughout the country.
The extent of the cult of personality surrounding Kim Jong-il and Kim Il-sung was illustrated on 11 June when a year-old North Korean schoolgirl drowned while attempting to rescue portraits of the two from a flood.
As a result of its isolation, North Korea is sometimes known as the " hermit kingdom ", a term that originally referred to the isolationism in the latter part of the Joseon Dynasty.
In the late s and the s its foreign policy was thrown into turmoil with the collapse of the Soviet bloc.
Suffering an economic crisis, it closed a number of its embassies. At the same time, North Korea sought to build relations with developed free market countries.
As of [update] , North Korea had diplomatic relations with countries and embassies in 47 countries. As a result of the North Korean nuclear weapons program , the Six-Party Talks were established to find a peaceful solution to the growing tension between the two Korean governments, Russia, China, Japan, and the United States.
The talks were discontinued in North Korea was previously designated a state sponsor of terrorism  because of its alleged involvement in the Rangoon bombing and the bombing of a South Korean airliner.
The Korean Demilitarized Zone with South Korea remains the most heavily fortified border in the world. In , the two Koreas agreed in principle to achieve reunification through peaceful means and without foreign interference.
It encouraged other countries to engage with the North, which allowed Pyongyang to normalize relations with a number of European Union states and contributed to the establishment of joint North-South economic projects.
North Korea responded by ending all of its previous agreements with the South. Kim also said that he will visit Seoul by the end of the year, this would be the first-ever visit by a North Korean leader to the capital city of the South.
North Korea is widely accused of having perhaps the worst human rights record in the world. Amnesty International reports of severe restrictions on the freedom of association, expression and movement, arbitrary detention, torture and other ill-treatment resulting in death, and executions.
The State Security Department extrajudicially apprehends and imprisons those accused of political crimes without due process.
Based on satellite images and defector testimonies, Amnesty International estimates that around , prisoners are held in six large political prison camps,   where they are forced to work in conditions approaching slavery.
Those who are deemed politically rehabilitated may reassume responsible government positions on their release. North Korean defectors  have provided detailed testimonies on the existence of the total control zones where abuses such as torture, starvation, rape, murder, medical experimentation , forced labor, and forced abortions have been reported.
According to Human Rights Watch, North Korean women are routinely subjected to sexual violence, unwanted sexual contact, and rape. Men in positions of power, including police, high-ranking officials, market supervisors, and guards can abuse women at will and are not prosecuted for it.
It happens so often that it is accepted as a routine part of life. The only ones with protection are those whose husbands or fathers are themselves in positions of power.
The North Korean government rejects the human rights abuse claims, calling them "a smear campaign" and a "human rights racket" aimed at government change.
This practice can never be found in the DPRK boasting of the sound mentality and good morals North Korea has a civil law system based on the Prussian model and influenced by Japanese traditions and communist legal theory.
The penal code is based on the principle of nullum crimen sine lege no crime without a law , but remains a tool for political control despite several amendments reducing ideological influence.
It is one of the most powerful state institutions in North Korea and oversees the national police force, investigates criminal cases and manages non-political correctional facilities.
Political camps can be short-term reeducation zones or " kwalliso " total control zones for lifetime detention. The security apparatus is very extensive,  exerting strict control over residence, travel, employment, clothing, food and family life.
It is believed they tightly monitor cellular and digital communications. The KPA has 1,, active and 8,, reserve and paramilitary troops, making it the largest military institution in the world.
It has approximately one million personnel divided into 80 infantry divisions , 30 artillery brigades , 25 special warfare brigades, 20 mechanized brigades, 10 tank brigades and seven tank regiments.
North Korea possesses nuclear weapons, but the strength of its arsenal is uncertain. According to a South Korean assessment, North Korea possesses a stockpile of chemical weapons estimated to amount to 2,—5, tons, including nerve, blister, blood, and vomiting agents, as well as the ability to cultivate and produce biological weapons including anthrax , smallpox , and cholera.
The military faces some issues limiting its conventional capabilities, including obsolete equipment, insufficient fuel supplies and a shortage of digital command and control assets due to other countries being banned from selling weapons to it by the UN sanctions.
To compensate for these deficiencies, the KPA has deployed a wide range of asymmetric warfare technologies like anti-personnel blinding lasers,  GPS jammers,  midget submarines and human torpedoes ,  stealth paint,  electromagnetic pulse bombs,  and cyberwarfare units.
Much of the equipment is engineered and produced by a domestic defense industry. Weapons are manufactured in roughly 1, underground defense industry plants scattered throughout the country, most of them located in Chagang Province.
International donors led by the United States initiated shipments of food through the World Food Program in to combat the famine. Bush Administration ,  the situation gradually improved: The famine had a significant impact on the population growth rate, which declined to 0.
Marriage is virtually universal and divorce is extremely rare. North Korea had a life expectancy of In , cardiovascular disease as a single disease group was reported as the largest cause of death in North Korea.
A free universal insurance system is in place. Every individual has a lifetime health card which contains a full medical record.
The census listed the entire population as literate. Most graduates from the compulsory program do not attend university but begin their obligatory military service or proceed to work in farms or factories instead.
The study of natural sciences is greatly emphasized while social sciences are neglected. North Korea shares the Korean language with South Korea, although some dialectal differences exist within both Koreas.
There are no known official statistics of religions in North Korea. According to Religious Intelligence, The influence of Buddhism and Confucianism still has an effect on cultural life.
The Open Doors mission, a Protestant-group based in the United States and founded during the Cold War-era, claims the most severe persecution of Christians in the world occurs in North Korea.
Based on their own behavior and the political, social, and economic background of their family for three generations as well as behavior by relatives within that range, Songbun is allegedly used to determine whether an individual is trusted with responsibility, given opportunities,  or even receives adequate food.
While some analysts believe private commerce recently changed the Songbun system to some extent,  most North Korean refugees say it remains a commanding presence in everyday life.
North Korea has maintained one of the most closed and centralized economies in the world since the s. Extensive Soviet and Chinese support allowed North Korea to rapidly recover from the Korean War and register very high growth rates.
Systematic inefficiency began to arise around , when the economy shifted from the extensive to the intensive development stage.
The shortage of skilled labor, energy, arable land and transportation significantly impeded long-term growth and resulted in consistent failure to meet planning objectives.
The loss of Eastern Bloc trading partners and a series of natural disasters throughout the s caused severe hardships, including widespread famine. By , the situation improved owing to a massive international food assistance effort, but the economy continues to suffer from food shortages, dilapidated infrastructure and a critically low energy supply.
North Korea has the structural profile of a relatively industrialized country  where nearly half of the Gross Domestic Product is generated by industry  and human development is at medium levels.
The economy is heavily nationalized. Rice, corn, soybeans and potatoes are some of the primary crops. Foreign trade surpassed pre-crisis levels in and continues to expand.
Power shortages are chronic and would not be alleviated even by electricity imports because the poorly maintained grid causes significant losses during transmission.
North Korea also strives to develop its own civilian nuclear program. These efforts are under much international dispute due to their military applications and concerns about safety.
Transport infrastructure includes railways, highways, water and air routes, but rail transport is by far the most widespread.
Road transport is very limited — only kilometers of the 25, kilometer road network are paved,  and maintenance on most roads is poor.
North Korean institutes are strong in these fields of research, although their engineers require additional training and laboratories need equipment upgrades.
Under its "constructing a powerful knowledge economy " slogan, the state has launched a project to concentrate education, scientific research and production into a number of "high-tech development zones".
International sanctions remain a significant obstacle to their development. On 7 February , North Korea successfully launched a long-range rocket, supposedly to place a satellite into orbit.
Critics believe that the real purpose of the launch was to test a ballistic missile. The launch was strongly condemned by the UN Security Council.
Usage of communication technology is controlled by the Ministry of Post and Telecommunications. An adequate nationwide fiber-optic telephone system with 1.
Internet access itself is limited to a handful of elite users and scientists. Instead, North Korea has a walled garden intranet system called Kwangmyong ,  which is maintained and monitored by the Korea Computer Center.
A dump of the data discovered was shared on GitHub. Despite a historically strong Chinese influence, Korean culture has shaped its own unique identity.
Koreans were forced to learn and speak Japanese, adopt the Japanese family name system and Shinto religion, and were forbidden to write or speak the Korean language in schools, businesses, or public places.
After the peninsula was divided in , two distinct cultures formed out of the common Korean heritage. North Koreans have little exposure to foreign influence.
Korean heritage is protected and maintained by the state. Visual arts are generally produced in the aesthetics of Socialist realism.
Most aspects of art have been dominated by Mansudae Art Studio since its establishment in It employs around 1, artists in what is likely the biggest art factory in the world where paintings, murals , posters and monuments are designed and produced.
There are 63 burial mounds in the tomb group, with clear murals preserved. It is believed that these murals also influenced the Japanese Kita Tora burial mound.
The government emphasized optimistic folk-based tunes and revolutionary music throughout most of the 20th century. All publishing houses are owned by the government or the WPK because they are considered an important tool for propaganda and agitation.
Science fiction is considered a secondary genre because it somewhat departs from the traditional standards of detailed descriptions and metaphors of the leader.
The exotic settings of the stories give authors more freedom to depict cyberwarfare , violence , sexual abuse and crime , which are absent in other genres.
Sci-fi works glorify technology and promote the Juche concept of anthropocentric existence through depictions of robotics , space exploration and immortality.
Government policies towards film are no different than those applied to other arts—motion pictures serve to fulfill the targets of "social education".
Viewers only see films that feature their favorite actors. North Korean media are under some of the strictest government control in the world.
All 12 major newspapers and 20 periodicals, including Rodong Sinmun , are published in the capital. There are three state-owned TV stations.
Two of them broadcast only on weekends and the Korean Central Television is on air every day in the evenings. Stories like Kim Jong-un undergoing surgery to look like his grandfather, executing his ex-girlfriend or feeding his uncle to a pack of hungry dogs have been circulated by foreign media as truth despite the lack of a credible source.
Monitored heavily by government officials, the media is strictly used to reinforce ideals approved by the government. Korean cuisine has evolved through centuries of social and political change.
Originating from ancient agricultural and nomadic traditions in southern Manchuria and the Korean Peninsula , it has gone through a complex interaction of the natural environment and different cultural trends.
Soju liquor is the best-known traditional Korean spirit. Most schools have daily practice in association football , basketball , table tennis , gymnastics , boxing and others.
In December , former American basketball professional Dennis Rodman visited North Korea to help train the national team after he developed a friendship with Kim Jong-un.
The Olympics saw its summer games debut and five medals, including one gold. With the exception of the boycotted Los Angeles and Seoul Olympics , North Korean athletes have won medals in all summer games since then.
The Arirang Festival has been recognized by the Guinness World Records as the biggest choreographic event in the world.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the Republic of Korea, see South Korea. For other uses, see Korea and Korean Peninsula.
Sovereign state in East Asia. Area controlled by the North Korean state are shown in dark green; North Korean-claimed but uncontrolled regions are shown in light green.
Korea under Japanese rule. Division of Korea and History of North Korea. Geography of North Korea. Administrative divisions of North Korea.
Yellow Sea Korea West Sea. Sea of Japan Korea East Sea. Largest cities or towns in North Korea Census . Kim dynasty North Korea and North Korean cult of personality.
Foreign relations of North Korea. Inter-Korean relations and Korean reunification. Human rights in North Korea.
Prisons in North Korea. Law enforcement in North Korea. North Korea and weapons of mass destruction and Songun. Health in North Korea. Education in North Korea.
North—South differences in the Korean language. Religion in North Korea. Economy of North Korea. Culture of North Korea.
Korean art and Korean architecture. Music of North Korea. Media of North Korea. List of North Korean dishes. Sport in North Korea.
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